The limits of the tool used by the police and gendarmerie to record data (Etat 4001), particularly as regards the type of offence and individual characteristics of the victims or implicated persons – in addition to the statistical breaks which occurred following changes in recording software – are prompting the ONDRP to turn to other sources of administrative data which provide more details on certain types of offence. Operational partnerships have thus been forged with the national gendarmerie, police and justice departments, for the purposes of obtaining information that cannot be found in traditional information systems. Through this cooperation with the national authorities, we can enrich the sets of statistics and cover areas that would not otherwise have been addressed.
Examples of operational partnerships:
HOMICIDES, RAPES AND ARMED ROBBERIES IN PARIS: THE OPERATIONS CELL FOR MATCHING AND ANALYSING ASSOCIATED OFFENCES (CORAIL)
In 2006, the Operations Cell for Matching and Analysing Associated Offences (CORAIL) of the Paris Regional Criminal Investigation Department (DRPJ), attached to the Préfecture de Police (Police Constabulary), was set up for the purposes of listing, within an IT platform, various information on crimes committed in Paris and the inner suburbs: precise details on victims and implicated persons, circumstances surrounding the offence and the means for implicating at least one person in reported crimes. Thanks to the detection of serial offences from telegrams or any other operational technique, police officers working in this Cell are tasked with dispatching operational information to the investigations teams coming under the Paris and Versailles regional criminal investigation departments and the Neighbourhood Safety Department of the Paris Conurbation.
The partnership established with the ONDRP has enabled new studies to be carried out using data from this Operations Cell: characteristics of homicides committed in Paris and the inner suburbs between 2007 and 2013 (“Grand Angle” issue no. 35, October 2014) and rapes committed in Paris in 2013 and 2014 (“Grand Angle” issue no. 37, January 2016). A study on armed robberies is due to be published in 2017.
SERIAL OFFENCES: THE CENTRAL OFFICE FOR COMBATING VIOLENCE AGAINST THE PERSON
The SALVAC system is run by the OCRVP (Central Office for Combating Violence against the Person) of the Central Criminal Investigation Department (DCPJ). It is a database bringing together information that has been compiled by a specialist group working at the OCRVP on homicides, rapes and sexual assaults, abductions and cases of missing persons, committed in the mainland (excluding family-related and institutional cases). The aim is to look for similarities – especially in behaviour – between these datasets, with a view to identifying and studying serial offences.
The point of the partnership initiated with the ONDRP is to determine a typology of the crimes recorded in SALVAC and to improve operational knowledge of these criminal phenomena.
PUBLIC TRANSPORT: WITH THE PRÉFECTURE DE POLICE DE PARIS
A working partnership has been set up with the Regional Transport Police Division (SDRPT) and Operational Department for Technical and Logistical Services (DOSTL) of the Préfecture de Police de Paris in order to closely study the crimes and offences committed on the Île-de-France suburban rail service (Transilien) and metro networks, particularly by using the operational application GIROS.
Social and judicial supervision of sexual offences
The medical treatment requirement, usually ordered at the same time as social and judicial supervision, is a sentence introduced by the Act of 17 June 1998 on preventing and combating sexual offences and protecting minors.
Initially restricted to offences of a sexual nature only, the scope for enforcing a medical treatment requirement has gradually been extended to include wilful attacks against life, abductions, illegal restraint, non-negligent manslaughter, property damage by fire, threats carried out by the spouse, live-in partner or civil partner, etc. And yet use of this system has not been the subject of any national-level statistical measurement so far. This shortcoming was highlighted as early as 2011 by the General Inspectorate of Social Affairs (IGAS) and General Inspectorate of Legal Services (IGSJ), which bemoan the lack of reliable statistics tools in this area.
With support from the Ministry of Justice's Prison Administration Department, the ONDRP and FFCRIAVS (French Federation of Resource Centres for Persons Working with Sexual Violence Offenders) have therefore teamed up in organising a national mechanism for collecting detailed information on the medical treatment requirement and to perform a statistical assessment thereof: the ELIS project.
The multidisciplinary working group set up in this respect meets at regular intervals.
Since 2014, the ONDRP along with several other bodies, the DILCRAH (Cross-Government Delegation for the Fight against Racism, Anti-Semitism and LGBT hatred) included, have been wondering about how they can improve the datasets available on discriminatory victimisation.
In 2016, as part of an initiative led by Insee's "Living conditions of households" division to update the annual "Living environment and security" crime victimisation survey, the ONDRP suggested forming a "Victimisation and Discrimination" working group.
In addition to the bodies overseeing the survey (ONDRP, Insee, SSMSI) and the DILCRAH, this group also includes the survey's partners, among them the General Commission for Territorial Equality (CGET) and researchers at the National Institute for Demographic Studies (INED), Université Paris X-Nanterre and Université Lille 1.
It has come up with proposals for improving the individual questionnaire of the crime victimisation survey in terms of discrimination offences and, on the back of this work, a new module (revised following a focus-group test) will be added to the 2018 survey.
Trafficking in human beings
Following the adoption of the National Action Plan against Trafficking in Human Beings (2014 - 2016), the ONDRP has begun to work in partnership with the main institutions and associations involved in combating this phenomenon. This partnership taps into two data sources.
The first source comprises administrative data, for which the ONDRP has set up a cross-government taskforce bringing together all of the departments taking action against trafficking in human beings, with a view to more accurately quantifying its victims on national soil. Participating in this workforce are the Cross-Government Mission for Protecting Women against Violence (MIPROF) and the Ministries of Justice, the Interior and Labour. Several meetings have been organised, during which discussions have been held on the notion of trafficking, systems for counting victims and the statistics available. It appeared that the different types of data collected were complementary – if not necessarily comparable – either because of the scope or their reliability (change in recording systems). The statistics available are forwarded every year to Eurostat for the European Commission’s collection of statistics on trafficking in human beings in EU Member States, in liaison with the UNODC (http://ec.europa.eu/anti-trafficking/).
For the purposes of compiling an alternative data source, a questionnaire on trafficking victims monitored by associations in France has been designed by the ONDRP and MIPROF, in conjunction with the member associations of the "Ensemble contre la traite des êtres humains" collective. The first data collection campaign took place between July and December 2016 and concerned victims who were monitored in 2015. This initial survey shed light on profile differences depending on the forms of exploitation and the regions of origin of the victims. In 2017, a detailed report (“Grand Angle” issue no. 43) and a feedback day presented the initial findings. The questionnaire is currently being updated to collect data bearing on 2016.